|HA101 Human Anatomy
|Human anatomy is explored, with the focus on the back, upper & lower limbs, head and neck regions. Particular emphasis is placed on the relationships between the structure and function of the neuromuscular and skeletal systems, from infancy through childhood, puberty, adolescence, adulthood and old age, and the clinical significance of these structures to the practicing osteopath. Students are also introduced to the human microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues with emphasis on connective, muscle and nerve tissues and their relationship with the human body function in health and disease.
|HP101 Human Physiology
|The physiology of body fluids, blood, and the cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, renal, and gastrointestinal systems; the function and control of all major organ systems; cell physiology and mechanisms at the cellular and sub-cellular levels; muscle performance; and the application of physiological principles to osteopathic practice are presented.
|Osteopathy Skills (OS101, OS102, OS201, OS202, OS301, OS302, OS401, OS402)
|These courses begins with examination procedures from simple observation and progressing to postural analysis, the development of the skills necessary to locate all points of surface anatomy pertinent to an osteopathic examination, development of the skills necessary to perform joint challenge and analysis, along with motion palpation and joint pain provocation. Students learn the skills associated with conducting a comprehensive examination (postural assessment, joint challenge, motion palpation, joint pain provocation) of the spine, pelvis and extremities.
These courses also cover all areas of patient interviewing such as history of present illness, comprehensive health history, record- keeping, problem-oriented history-taking, narrative format histories, nonverbal communication and patients with special problems.
|OM101 Osteopathic Theory, Philosophy & Methods
|The historical and foundational approach to health which is unique to osteopathy is presented. Issues pertaining to the philosophy, art, and science of osteopathy, professionalism and ethics, informed consent, and the unique ethical responsibilities of the health professional student and practitioner are explored.
|CR101 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
|This course teaches rescuer skills in CPR and relief of choking (foreign-body airway obstruction). It presents information about signs of heart attack, cardiac arrest, stroke and choking in adults.
|Practical lab (PL101, PL102, PL201, PL202, PL301, PL302, PL401, PL402)
|These courses are optional. Attendance is not mandatory. It takes one week full time to complete each course. Students review the osteopathic techniques taught in the semester. Students get to watch an osteopath perform the techniques and they get to practice the techniques on each other while being supervised by an osteopath.
|CB102 Clinical Biomechanics
|Basic biomechanical principles and properties of the spine; the mechanical concepts of basic body mechanics; and advanced topics involving moment calculation are presented, with emphasis on their application to osteopathic treatments. The biomechanics of the joints of the upper & lower limbs, and lumbar, cervical and thoracic spine are examined to explain how pathologies develop. Due to the preponderance of low back pain, detailed attention is given to the functional anatomy and pathomechanics of the lumbar spine and the concept of lumbar spine stability.
|NA102 Neuro Anatomy
|The developmental, gross and functional anatomy of the human nervous system is presented with a focus on the brain, brain stem and spinal cord. Particular emphasis is placed on the functional relationships between structures along with the clinical significance of these structures to a practicing osteopath.
|CN102 Clinical Nutrition
|This course explores the principles of nutrition as they relate to health and to the prevention of disease. It provides a framework for the study of the basics of nutrition including; micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), the energy-yielding nutrients (Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins), metabolism, digestion, absorption and energy balance. This course will also look at lipids in detail: their functions, classification, dietary requirements, digestion & absorption, metabolism and links to the major fatal diseases, heart disease and cancer.
|Osteopathic Techniques (OT101, OT102, OT201, OT202, OT301, OT302, OT401, OT402)
|These courses provide in-depth instruction to develop proficiency in general and specific spinal, pelvic, TMJ, cranial, visceral, upper & lower extremity osteopathic techniques. Students learn how to deliver osteopathic techniques with the focus on control, direction, speed and depth of pressure. Emphasis is placed on competence in conducting an analysis (including all forms of static joint play, palpation and mobility testing procedures) of the spine, pelvis, and extremities to arrive at an osteopathic diagnosis that will enable accurate determination of the appropriate manual procedures. Screening procedures and the importance of informed consent are discussed, and the student is taught many different osteopathic techniques including osteopathic soft tissue therapy, muscle energy, osteoarticular, high velocity low amplitude, oscillatory, thermogenic, global, myofascial release, neuromuscular retraining, lymphatic pump, still’s, manual mechanotherapy (the lost techniques of osteopathy), positional facilitated release, strain/counterstrain, visceral manipulation, cranial osteopathy, myofascial release, trigger point therapy, therapeutic joint specific exercises & others.
|MM201 Medical Microbiology
|Concepts of bacteriology, virology, parasitology and mycology are introduced. The classification and characteristics of infectious organisms are described and the concepts of virulence, pathogenicity, disease transmission, and the principles of prevention including immunization are discussed. An introduction is made to pathogenic microorganisms and their role in the production of infectious diseases. An appreciation of bacterial morphology and culture characteristics is developed. Fungal morphology and diagnostic parasitic stages are demonstrated.
|The basic mechanisms involved in cell death, necrosis, inflammation and repair, & neoplasia are presented. The understanding of the pathological principles of disease processes to further the understanding of the clinical manifestations of disease and the rationale for treatment are discussed. Clinic-pathological correlations are emphasized where applicable. Systemic pathology, including aetiology, pathogenesis, morphology and microscopic features and course of the diseases of major diseases and neoplasms of different body organs are provided. Problems and clinical case scenarios are included to facilitate understanding and correlating the pathology with clinical presentation.
|The organization and constituents of the immune system are explored. The role of innate and acquired immunity in defence against infections and maintaining health is discussed, including immunoregulation, vaccination, neuroendocrine immunology, and selected clinical conditions that are immunologic in nature.
|DS202 Diagnosis & Symptomology
|This course teaches the general principles of clinical diagnosis. Students are taught basic skills in history-taking and physical examination procedures with an emphasis on interviewing skills and vital signs. This course emphasizes osteopath-patient interactions, the importance of informed consent, and the use of standard diagnostic procedures. This course enables students to develop systematic analytical and diagnostic skills. Students work through history, physical examination, special tests, and plan the management of several osteopathic cases. Students also study the diagnosis of disorders of the various body systems. Emphasis is placed on etiology, pathology, signs and symptoms, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Areas of study include disorders of the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems, as well as dermatology, eyes, ears, nose and throat (EENT), hematology, allergic reactions, and immunology. Particular attention is focused on knowledge of those disease processes which confront osteopaths.
|Common neurological disorders are presented with particular emphasis on conditions frequently seen by osteopaths. The skills required to apply the findings of a neurological examination and correlate clinical neurological findings with other diagnostic data are developed. Emphasis is placed on the clinical pattern recognition, aetiology, signs, symptoms and differential diagnosis.
|LD202 Clinical Laboratory Diagnosis
|The use of clinical laboratory findings in clinical decision making in health and common disease states is demonstrated. Problem solving exercises are undertaken with data from the biochemistry, immunology, and haematology laboratories.
|Clinical diagnosis of disorders of the musculoskeletal system, focusing on the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine and pelvis as well as the upper and lower limbs, including their effects on the nervous system is explored. Emphasis is placed on the importance of history taking and physical examination of the spine, TMJ & the limbs (including observation, ranges of motion, orthopaedic tests, soft tissue palpation, joint and bony palpation). Informed consent & contraindications to manual therapy are discussed.
|OM301 Osteopathy Clinic Management
|This course discusses different clinic practice business arrangements, the choice of a location, the establishment of a brand for the clinic/practice, and the development of a marketing strategy and business plan. Basic accounting procedures, financial strategies, office policy and procedures, and human resource management, are provided toward the successful management of the business aspects of private osteopathic practice.
|PT301 Physiotherapy Modalities
|The basic physics, physiological principles, indications and contraindications, and appropriate applications of physiological therapeutics, which include electrotherapy, ultrasound, hydrotherapy, mechanotherapy, phototherapy, thermotherapy, and cryotherapy are presented.
|OP302 Osteopathy Principles, Practice, Ethics & Jurisprudence
|This course acquaints students with their rights and obligations together with, and more importantly, the rights and obligations of the patient. Emphasis is placed on risk management, informed consent, osteopathy legal issues, ethics and the law, the patient-osteopath relationship, writing a medical-legal report, and practice management . This course familiarizes students with the relationship between osteopathy practice and the law.
|This in-depth course provides the knowledge and skills required for students to conduct a thorough neurological examination and to correlate clinical neurological findings with other diagnostic data.
|RM302 Rehabilitation Medicine
|Contemporary use of exercise for the rehabilitation and functional restoration of the musculoskeletal system; planning, prescribing, and monitoring exercise programs; indications for therapeutic exercise prescription and concepts of exercise progression; and, the osteopath’s role in functional recovery as it pertains to occupational issues and disability management are presented.
|AT401 Auxiliary Osteopathic Therapy (decompression therapy, foot orthotics, orthopaedic shoes, orthopaedic bracing, support hose fitting)
|This course covers auxiliary osteopathic therapy including decompression traction therapy. Students learn indications and contraindications of DTT as well as how to cast foot orthotics, measure for orthopaedic shoes and support hose. They receive in-depth training on indications and contraindication of these auxiliary therapies.
|Sports Nutrition & Weight Loss Management (SN301, SN401)
|The main focus of this course is the role of nutrition in fitness, weight loss and sports. Methods are focused on where nutrition can help maximize muscle strength, endurance, and flexibility; through building muscle and reducing fat. Techniques for guiding athletes in proper nutrition in training, and effective methods to prevent dehydration and sports related injuries due to insufficient nutrient levels. Real case studies are examined, exploring leading methods & techniques in optimizing sports performance & weight loss with proper nutrition.
|RX401 Principles of Radiology & X-ray Diagnosis (Rheumatology & Orthopaedics)
|A comprehensive introduction to radiographic interpretation of normal, variant, and pathological states is provided. Specific disease processes including tumours and tumour like lesions, infections of bone, metabolic/endocrine disorders and vascular conditions are explored. Fractures, dislocations, and soft tissue injury of the entire skeletal system are covered. The aetiology, pathology, signs and symptoms, radiographic features, and management of major rheumatic diseases are presented as they relate to osteopathic practice. A basic understanding of the various radiological techniques including Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Diagnostic Ultrasound (DUS), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Electron Beam Tomography (EBT), Bone Densitometry, Nuclear Medicine, and Computed Tomography, their clinical indications, contraindications, and usefulness in a clinical setting and the need for referral for further evaluation and/or co-management as appropriate are provided.
|Research Project & Thesis (TH302, TH402)
|The final report of the investigative project, approved by the faculty supervisor, is completed in a professional format and submitted to the NUMSS.
|CE402 Clinical Ergonomics
|This course examines the basic tenet of ergonomics, “the modification of the environment to meet the needs of the individual,” and contrasted to “the adaptation of the individual to meet the constraints of the environment.” This course is designed to enhance the student’s understanding and application of ergonomic principles in the clinical setting.
|Sports Medicine (SM302, SM402)
|This course aims to develop a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach to prevention, treatment and management of sports injuries. Students will be provided with the clinical knowledge, research and practical skills for evidence-based practice in sports medicine. They will be well placed to treat different types of exercising individuals (e.g. athletes, amateur sports people), and different types of injuries sustained during sporting activities and other physical activity (e.g. muscular injuries, lumbar region injuries).